DNA paternity testing is the use of DNA profiling (known as genetic fingerprinting) to determine whether two individuals are biologically parent and child. A test establishes genetic proof whether a man is the biological father of an individual, and a maternity test establishes whether a woman is the biological mother of an individual. Tests can also determine the likelihood of someone being a biological grandparent to a grandchild.
DNA testing is currently the most advanced and accurate technology to determine parentage.
The DNA of an individual is the same in every somatic (nonreproductive) cell. Sexual reproduction brings the DNA of both parents together randomly to create a unique combination of genetic material in a new cell, so the genetic material of an individual is derived from the genetic material of both their parents in equal amounts. This genetic material is known as the nuclear genome of the individual, because it is found in the nucleus.
The DNA parentage test that follows strict chain of custody can generate legally admissible results that are used for child support, inheritance, social welfare benefits, immigration, or adoption purposes. To satisfy the chain-of-custody legal requirements, all tested parties have to be properly identified and their specimens collected by a third-party professional who is not related to any of the tested parties and has no interest in the outcome of the test
DNA paternity testing can show that a man is highly likely to be the father with about 99.9% accuracy, or that he is excluded as being the father with 100% accuracy
Paternity can be determined by highly accurate tests conducted on blood or tissue samples of the father (or alleged father), mother and child
Characteristics that cannot be found in the mother must have been inherited from the father. DNA paternity testing is the most accurate form of paternity testing possible.
DNA paternity testing has many purposes. Here are the top five reasons that people may want to use a paternity test:
The report shows one of two conclusions: “is not excluded as the biological father” or “is excluded as the biological father.”
Interview/counselling by a professional to know whether there is a dispute
Confirm presence of parents
Explain the implication of outcome possibilities
Communicate conditional requirements, like passports, id cards or birth certificate and photographs as means for identification
Collect whole blood in EDTA bottle, from father and son with a witness, either mother or a guidance.
DNA paternity testing is the most accurate form of paternity testing possible. If DNA patterns between the child and the alleged father do not match on two or more DNA probes, then the alleged father can be totally ruled out. If the DNA patterns between mother, child, and the alleged father match on every DNA probe, the likelihood of paternity is 99.9 percent.